British Sum…meh

It’s common knowledge that when referring to summer in the UK, one should always use air quotes. ‘Summer’ in the UK is ordinary at best, so for the few days the mercury dares to venture above 25 degrees, it’s taken pretty seriously by all. The country awakens from its slumber and residents go above and beyond to savour their brief British sum…meh.

Growing up in Australia, a county known for its sunshine and outdoor lifestyle, I was instilled with a healthy respect for the great ball of fire in the sky. ‘Slip, Slop, Slap‘ was the mantra of my childhood and later on avoided the sun like an ex you spot standing across the room at a friend’s party.

Apparently people in the UK were not given these same sun sense lectures throughout their formative years. Every time temperatures rise, the locals shed their clothes (taps aff!) and every spare inch of sunlight is occupied by a lily-white Brit…sans sunscreen. You can always tell if there’s been a summer’s day in the UK by the myriad of sunburnt flesh patterns seen in the office the following day.

Sunburn-Slider

For the remaining 360 days of the year when the sun doesn’t shine, the UK population appears to keep fake tanning companies in business with their desire to look sun kissed. Not a day goes by when I don’t see the tell tale signs of a botched fake tan job…an orange face here…brown elbows there…hands looking like they’ve been dipped in wood stain…everywhere. Some Brits would literally rather look like an Oompa Loompa than bear any resemblance to someone from the cast of Interview With a Vampire

Fake-Tan-Fails-2.png

When I think about a quintessentially British summer, images of beer gardens and pints of cider on the footpath spring to mind. For most of the year, drinking is an indoor sport for those living in the UK, but when the sun is out, so is this beloved British pastime. With the daylight hours extending to 9 or 10pm during the ‘summer’ months, a walk past any pub in the evening might have you thinking there’s been a fire evacuation…

IMG_1670.JPG

For the upper echelons of society (or those willing to camp in a field overnight), summer in the UK is all about Wimbledon. Regardless of whether you are a tennis fan (Roger who?), the grand slam as a great opportunity to combine all of Britain’s favourite summer hobbies in one fell swoop…drinking, skiving off work and catching a ‘suntan’. With a Pimm’s in one hand and strawberries in the other, British summer doesn’t get much better.

On the rare occasion when temperatures spike above 30 degrees, the UK literally bakes. The London Underground becomes an oven of unbearable magnitude, buildings melt cars, store freezers look like something out of a post-apocalyptic movie and people actually need medical attention…

The number one question I get asked here is ‘Why on earth did you leave the sunshine in Australia to come to rainy old Blighty?!’ Err, well…predominantly because my husband lives here and I like to be near him? But aside from that, and on a purely weather related note, because I hate the heat and I’m a miserable cow for a large portion of the year in Australia. Whereas in the UK, it’s socially acceptable to moan about the heat as soon as it hits 23 degrees. And there’s snow sometimes.

In this country, I don’t have to suffer summer all year round…the season politely shares the calendar with the other three seasons, just as it should. As a resident in England, I can safely step outside the front door 97% of the time without feeling like I might self combust. But most importantly, because a summer’s day is so rare here, that when it does come about, the country comes to life…and people actually smile. To quote Lilly Allen’s thoughts on London in summer, ‘Sun is in the sky, oh why oh why, would I want to be anywhere else?’

 

Picture This…

Yes, I know…long time no post. I’ve been home in Australia for three and a half months now and paperdoll has taken a backseat to the adventures of resettling back into life here. I admit it…and I apologise. What can I say? I love being home and every time I sit down to write paperdoll I get distracted by…well…everything.

Having said that, lately the first signs I may be missing Japan have crept in (natsukashi)…it started with a craving for ramen…then there was an emotional reaction to a letter from one of my past students…and let’s not forget that living with my parents again has me pining for my 42m² Japanese apartment. Every. Single. Day.

Yes, I have begun to miss Japan and all of it’s crazy, quirky ways. But much like A Picture Says a Thousand Kanji, when I am missing Japan and need a fix, I can just picture this

Sleeping in Japan

Japanese student letter

English signage in Japan

Japanese dessert

Stretching

Dashboard

Takeout menu

Japanese antenna

Japanese fashion

Japanese Kit KatsEnglish sign in Japan

Japanese laundry

English in Japan

Japanese Hello Kitty Mask

Japanese shredder

Japanese Aquarium sign

Japanese glitter suits

Japanese Pepsi flavour

Japaese toilet paper

Japanese Clothing Engrish

Japanese fashion

Funny English in Japan

Japanese Architecture Osaka

Japanese Beauty Products

Japanese giant vegetables

Japanese sign

Train etiquette in Japan

Japanese gift explanation

Japanese fashion

Japanese trinkets

Japanese fashion

English textbook Japan

Japanese ice cream

Japanese toilet slippers

English in Japan

Japanese fashion

Japanese signage

Japanese cars

English in Japan

English in Japan

English in Japan

Japanese fashion

Japanese beauty products

Japanese toilets

The Good, The Bad and The Aussie…

In case you didn’t hear me shouting the news from the rooftops, I finally got off that island (Japan). I escaped from the bubble. I jumped ship. I got the truck out of dodge. After three years of life as an ALT (Assistant Language Teacher), I hitched a flight home to Australia and those people who had begun to forget they’re my family. Some of you might be wondering what will happen to paperdoll now that I’m back? Surely without 400+ junior high school kids and the perils of culture shock to contend with every day, I mustn’t have much to write about now? I beg to differ…

I’ve only been back in Australia a month, but I’m already experiencing reverse culture shock after living abroad for six years (yes, there were another three years in the UK too…my addition skills aren’t that bad). So you see I’m home…but I feel like a foreigner in my own country. Even my family can’t believe I’m back for good and I swear my mother keeps pinching herself every time she sees me (which is a lot…since I’m living with my parents again…but that’ll be a whole other blog entry).

Right now, Japan and the UK are my most recent reference points for home and Australia is this strange land I am getting reacquainted with. As I get resettled, I will continue to write about my aventures in Japan (I still have so much to say about it all) and these new experiences of reverse culture shock…or as I’m now calling it…the good, the bad and the Aussie

The Good…

My family.

It’s the end of April…mid Autumn, with winter coming…and it’s around 25°C every day. Forget hellish Japanese winters!

NO MORE SQUAT TOILETS.

Squat_toilet_Japan_culture_shock

The Bad…

Green tea in Australia sucks. Period.

Red lights actually mean stop, not three-more-people-can-make-it-through-the-intersection-still.

No road cones to feed my weird addiction…

The Aussie…

People wave acknowledgements of kindness from their cars instead of bowing or flashing their hazard lights.

I can say spesh, noice, netty, chook, suss, arvo, sanga, Maccas, cuppa and all other manner of Aussie slang and be understood.

Meat pies.

The Good…

The earth doesn’t shake every day…or…well…ever.

I don’t have to eat rice.

I now work for myself and I love it (WARNING: imminent, shameless self promotion: threefold.com.au)

The Bad…

Australia stinks…literally. After living in Japan I can’t handle strong fragrances anymore.

The speed limit is actually the speed limit.

NO ORIGAMI PAPER.

koala2

The Aussie…

Everyone is up for a chat…the postman, the checkout chick and the pizza guy…

Men. With the ability to grow facial hair. With muscles. With height. With masculinity. Enough said.

Tim Tams, Vegemite, Caramello Koalas…nomnomnom…

The Good…

Anonymity. Sweet anonymity.

One word…organic.

I keep reaching for XL size clothing in stores…only to remember I’m not a giant in this country.

The Bad…

I can feel my Japanese ability leaching out of my brain with every English conversation I have.

Small showers.

No fan club of adoring teenage kids to stroke my ego every day.

The Aussie…

Competitive sport.

Fresh, un(less?)polluted air.

Thongs are things people wear on their feet and there aren’t many Kiwis, Americans or Brits around to refute the point.

The Good…

I can enjoy a restaurant meal without having cigarette smoke billowing in my face.

I don’t have to carry a wad of cash around in my wallet (though the card charges from my first night out in Australia might make this a moot point…).

I sleep on a bed…not the ground.

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA

The Bad…

No rainbow of KitKat flavours…though this might in fact be a good thing…

My Converse addiction will cost me double than what it did in Japan.

No amusing Engrish.

kinkakuji toilet sign

The Aussie…

Triple J music.

The Hills Hoist in the back yard…which virtually snap dries my clothing immediately.

This…

Who Cares if They’re Naughty or Nice?

Three weeks before Christmas, I initiated an ‘English Christmas Challenge’ for my students. The concept was simple…if they wrote me a Christmas story or letter in English, I would write them a reply and give them a small present in return. The only rules were that they had to write a minimum of three sentences and they could only receive two presents…any letters after that were purely for the joy of corresponding with me in English (ha).

Two days and 20 letters into the challenge, the teachers started calling me ‘Santa’ as I wandered the halls giving out presents from my Christmas stocking (it’s all about the theatrics…not the hundred yen gifts). With a total of 434 students, I started to wonder…had I bitten off more than I could chew? Come the end of semester, was I going to end up with carpal tunnel from hours of writing replies? Would I be rocking myself in the fetal position having nightmares about the 2nd year boys trying to pillage my stocking?!

I came to realise that children can be bought (quite cheaply apparently) and by the end of the challenge I had received 164 letters in total. I had been Santa to these kids and received letters from all kinds of students. From the ones who can write English in their sleep to the ones who still can’t spell their own names after three years of study. From the kid who never opens his English textbook in class, to the cute little 1st year girl who writes to me every week. The letters and the students who wrote them were many and varied, but in the end I realised… who cares if they’re naughty or nice? As long as they use English…

There were the cute letters with declarations of adoration and love…

There were the comments/pictures regarding my appearance…

There were letters about music (good and bad)…

There were the students channeling Yoda into their writing…

There were the sweet talkers (who were clearly only in it for one thing)…

Then there were the unexpected presents. Some cute…

And some not so cute (a picture of Arashi and a scrunchie)…

And some just weird…like ear buds these pellets that expanded in water?!

There were the letters to make me laugh…

There were the letters containing Engrish…

Oh and then there were the letters from the Gods…

And lastly, there were the hand made Christmas cards from my special needs students…

The experience was possibly more entertaining for me than the students but nonetheless, it got them reading, writing, listening and speaking English more than they would on a usual day.

While I am secretly glad I don’t have 20+ students writing to me every day, I was happy to receive these cards in the mail over winter break and know that at least some of the kids will continue writing for the joy of an English exchange with me…even now that the presents have dried up and Santa has retired…

Ode to Yuji

Yuji, the baseball player, with bat and glove,

The fifteen year old boy, who adorned me in love.

Yuji, school life just isn’t the same,

With you in Kyushu playing the game.

Yuji, I wonder, how are you today?

In the south of Japan, so far away.

Yuji, six months, since you left my life,

Are you cheeky as ever, causing all kinds of strife?

Yuji, I’m left, incomplete and in pain,

Without you here, to drive me insane.

Yuji, to me, you played a large part,

The only J-boy, to capture my heart.

Yuji, the others, they try to be you,

Kazuki, Ryuji and the senseis too.

Yuji, the others, they fail to be,

Your replacement, they aren’t, it’s plain to see.

Yuji, these days, no love comes my way,

No smile, no message, no sweet words you say.

Yuji, have you moved on, and left me for dead?

Those advances you made, just words you said?

Yuji, since you seem to have cast me aside,

Is there another, along for the ride?

Yuji, who is it now, you give your love to?

Some teen, a groupie…or worse, tell me true!

Yuji, what English are you learning these days?

On who are you honing your lover boy ways?

Yuji, be honest, tell me, who’s your ALT now?

Have you replaced me with some other foreign cow?!

Yuji, why bother, she’s no me, I’ll bet,

Not rolling her eyes, nor playing hard to get.

Yuji, she won’t be a challenge for you,

You need the chase, you know you do!

Yuji, forget her, this other ALT,

Get on a shink and come back to me!

Yuji, our history, please don’t forget,

Don’t let this end, in a poem of regret.

Yuji, I’m sorry, I treated you so bad.

No, that’s not true, I’m actually glad.

Yuji, you loved it, no need for lies here,

So please just come back, so we can be near.

Yuji, you’re gone, but I want you back,

My days at Omiya-chu, your love they lack.

Yuji, I miss those games we played,

Oh how I wish, you could have stayed.

Yuji, I wait for your return to me,

While you’re off playing baseball, a star to be.

Yuji, when you’re a man (and baseball pro),

Look me up in Australia, I’ll be ready to go…

A Pain in the Proverbial…

It’s no secret that Japan is littered with examples of misappropriated English…or Engrish, as we foreigners like to call it. The bane of an English teacher’s life in Japan, Engrish is everywhere…on clothing, in restaurant menus, on stationery…and most frequently…on toilet signage.

In all of those instances I can grit my teeth, take a photo and present it on facebook or Paperdoll (remember A Picture is Worth a Thousand Kanji?!) for the amusement of people all over the world. But when the mistakes appear repeatedly and right under my nose at school, it becomes a real pain in the proverbial

It seems that the teachers and students forget that they have a native English speaker at their disposal to consult in matters like these, before ‘going to press’. But this is Japan and the stubborn mistakes will persist…and besides, sometimes they get it right…in more ways than one…

A Picture is Worth a Thousand Kanji

I love words, I always have (unsurprising to those that know me, I’m sure). I believe communication to be the fundamental basis of every human interaction and necessary every day life. I speak openly and frequently to anyone who will listen to my ramblings (that includes you, clearly) and I derive more pleasure from a good catch up session with a friend, than almost anything else in this world.

But entering into my third year in Japan, I can’t help but notice how often words fail me in day to day life here…and not just the Japanese ones. So many times, I am unable to conjure words in response to a situation. At these times (usually Only in Japan moments), the only word I can seem to articulate is ‘wow’…as my students well know.  Sometimes Japan leaves me speechless (difficult to imagine, I know) and a moment just cannot be captured with words. At these times, a picture is worth a thousand kanji

Boys Will Be Boys…

This post comes with a disclaimer: I want it to be known I have 3 other blog entries in the making…all pieces of sophisticated commentary on life in Japan. But all those words seem completely irrelevant, or worse…boring, compared to the material the kids at school give me to write about. Let’s face it…I can’t script the kind of humour they produce for me on a daily basis…

I’ve been back at school precisely six days since my summer break and the kids’ English has been on fire since their return. The contributing factors for this behaviour are; A. They missed me (truly) and are desperate to speak to me any chance they get, B. Many of my 3rd year students went to Australia over summer and want to tell me about their experience and last (but not least), C. The kids (boys) scored a barrage of new (and inappropriate) vocab from the kids (boys) in Australia and want to test it out on me.

School this week has been dedicated to practice for the sports carnival being held tomorrow. As such I have had the chance to chat to the kids quite a bit outside of the classroom… a double edged sword situation. On the one hand, they can speak English in a low pressure, fun environment…on the other, they can get away with saying a whole lot more to me without a Japanese teacher nearby to keep them in line.

Today I got to experience both sides of the coin and as such I have concluded that it is a global phenomenon that ‘boys will be boys’. The following is a cross section of the comments and questions I received from my 3rd year students out on the sports field this afternoon. Boys’ comments in red, girls’ comments in white…

‘Miss Carla, white skin. Very beautiful.’

‘Do you play sex?’ (actions included)*

‘You face, very beautiful.’

‘You know blow job?’ (actions included)*

‘Miss Carla, long leg. Good style.’

‘Have you play sex? Have you play blow job?’ (actions included)*

‘Do you have boyfriend?’

‘You like blow job? Is delicious?’ (actions included)*

‘Miss Carla very cute!’

‘What breast cup size? What panties colour?’*

‘Miss Carla, blue eye. Very beautiful.’

‘Do you know masturbate? Have you masturbate?’ (actions included)*

‘You know Miyazaki? He my boyfriend. What think?’

‘Penis in vagina yet? When first time sex?’*

‘You like Japanese boy?’

Yuji: ‘Miss Carla, small milky breasts’
Me: ‘Yes Yuji, so you keep telling me’
Hayate: ‘Small breast, but beautiful face’

(Hayate gives me hope for all mankind.)

*all these questions were answered with ‘No Comment’ to which the boys then derived their own answers on my behalf.

Creative Writing

By now you should all be familiar with the wit and charm that my kids lay on me in every day conversation at school. Be it in the classroom, during lunch, or in the hallways, armed with their fearless desire to speak to me, the kids will accost me with their unique brand of English whenever they get the chance.

Of course, not all the kids at school are able (or willing) to speak English with me. Whether it stems from shyness, stage fright or the fact that I am just so scary, there are a number of students who have barely spoken 2 words of English to me since I started at Omiya Junior High almost a year ago.

Having said this, some kids have found a way around this obstacle and surprised me with their creative writing skills throughout the year. ‘Carla Post’ has been a great exchange I established soon after arriving at the school and the kids use letters, class worksheets and now email as platforms to communicate with me through written English. I have found these systems to be confidence building for the kids and hugely rewarding and entertaining for me! Here is just a small cross section of the literary genius that has been bestowed upon me over the last year (NB – for authenticity sake I have left all spelling mistakes and grammar errors!):

Ms Omori and Ms Carla are the most wonderful of all women.
– Mr Ogane, 2-5

Hello Miss Cara
I’m sorry if I wrong
I am three years Mashiko Naoki
Occasionally send e-mail
At that time, please reply
I’ll graduate soon
Carla and I think it’s a meet in more mistakes, so sad
And create many happy memories until graduation
Well then good night Miss Cara
Thank you
– Mr Mashiko, 3-2

There is a pen in the pen case.
There are pens in the pen case.

Is there a pen in the pen case?
Are there pens in the pen case?
Where is my pen?
– Mr Ogane, 2-5

Please help yourself.
Thank you.
Would you like some more peanuts?
Yes please. It’s delicious.
What would you like some more peanut juice?
Yes, please.
Would you like another piece of peanut cake?
I’m sorry, I can’t eat peanuts.
Oh my God.
– Mr Uruno & Mr Hayakawa, 3-3

Let’s go to the toilet.
– Mr Kasai, 1-2

My name is Wada Chiname. I’m 13 years old. I have 5 familys. My brother is an impertinent :’-(
– Miss Wada, 2-4

My soul, your beats.
– 3-2 class for graduation

Please help yourself.
No thank you. I don’t like your face.
– Mr Sekine & Mr Ijima, 3-2

100 hamburgers and 2 colas please.
– Mr Arai, 1-3

Money.
More money.
Money, cars, danger.
Give me money.
Money!
– Mr Nogami, 3-4

I like chocolates.
I play tennis.
I like KITTY.
Do you like chocolates?
Do you play tennis?
Do you like KITTY?
– Miss Sato, 1-1

Herro Ms.Carla!!
Iam Kazuki ichikawa.
Iam glad to hear your e-mail address.
Oh…I can not speak English well.
So. I speak Japanese.
– Mr Ichikawa, 2-2

I like him because he gives me money.
– Mr Yamazaki, 2-1

I have two dog.
Do you like dog?
I like like dog.
– Miss Jigen, 1-5

Let’s, let’s, let’s.
– Mr Okushi, 1-5

Please help yourself.
You die.
Would you like some more?
I kill.
Would you like some meet stick?
I don’t like your meet stick.
Of course. Would you like another your meet balls?
No, I’m full.
– Mr Wada & Mr Fujita, 3-4

I want to be an astronaut, but I’m not bright.
– Mr Sato, 2-4

Can I ask you a favour?
I’m very tired.
Can you give me a massage?
– Miss Wada & Miss Kato, 2-1

I want to be a salary man. I want to have many holiday.
– Mr Ogane, 2-5

Hello! M’s Carla.
I’m Misaki Akiyama.
I’ll never forget stadied English with you.
It was fun for me to M’s carla’s class.
Thank you for a long time.
I hope you nice life form now on.
See you again.
This e-mail is maybe more mistake.
We would like to offer our sincere apologies for the mistake.
– Miss Akiyama, 3-3

I think casual kindness is important.
– Miss Sakata, 2-1

Let’s get married.
– Mr Uruno, 1-4

Tennis Mafia & Taiko

That’s right OC followers…it has almost been a month since I left the safety of Australia to embark on this Japanese life…and let me tell you, the last week has been very eventful! From my induction into ‘Tennis Club Mafia’ to my first Japanese Karaoke experience, every day has been an adventure…

Things started quietly on Monday with a normal school day and ongoing introduction lessons as I continue to plough my way through the first 14 classes. In an effort to stave off boredom in the teachers’ room and show the kids I have an active interest in them I also made the somewhat rash decision to make name tags for the students…all 400 plus of them. My JTEs (Japanese Teachers of English) were fairly surprised and pleased to discover I could read Hiragana (one of the Japanese syllabic systems) and that I was willing to translate into English for the kids. A week later I have finished 1st and 2nd years…hmm.

In a bid to win over my main JTE, Masuda Sensei…and some of the kids, I signed up to join in with tennis club on Tuesday afternoon (as Masuda Sensei is the tennis club coach for the boys team). Again, not really thinking things through, I forgot that the boys and girls are separated and that in fact I wouldn’t get to talk to Masuda Sensei at all! Despite that, it was a gorgeous day and I had a blast. I haven’t played tennis in SO long though and I have certainly never played ‘soft’ tennis on a dirt court, so it was a very new experience.

The girls seemed to enjoy having me there (they particularly liked my praise…’great smash’) but my biggest fan was Isono Sensei…the tennis club coach for the girls. She thinks I am a star on court and as such I somehow agreed to buy a racquet and play against her on a regular basis! She is a pretty cool teacher…I reckon if I was 15 years older and Japanese I would be a lot like her. I think she suffers from my competitive streak so the games could get interesting. So yes, I am now a member of the ‘Tennis Club Mafia’. Hopefully this won’t dent my plans to get to some other clubs like kendo, art, volleyball and table tennis in the near future.

The rest of the school week was spent befriending the teachers as classes were light on due to exams. I think the teachers are realising one by one that I have an honest love of Japanese culture and that I am willing to embrace it and try everything at least once! I had a conversation with Shiba Sensei and I told him I was wanting to sit the Japanese proficiency exam…the next day he came in bearing a gift of Japanese sweet biscuits for me! My street cred also improves every day that I eat the school lunch too…with chopsticks. The teachers have developed a keen respect for me as I scoff down everything served up to me…when half the time they don’t even know what it is we are eating!

Friday night brought with it a chance to let off some steam and try my hand at Taiko…Japanese drumming. Those that know me well know that I can’t play any musical instrument to save my life. So understandably I went into the class with some trepidation…trying to channel some Dave Grohl, circa Nirvana days. Much to my surprise and delight I have more rhythm than I give myself credit for and had great fun thumping the life out of the big drums with the other ALTs in the area.


Sadly my school week extended to Saturday as it was parent’s day at Omiya Junior High School. I should have seen it as an omen when I awoke to snow outside…this was not going to be a good day. Silvy (my trusty nana bike) and I trudged off to school in the snow and after feeling returned to my extremities I was informed that I would be participating in a demonstration English class for the parents. Now this in itself was a terrifying thought only two weeks into this teaching gig. Now add to the equation that the lesson was to be with the 1st year students who can barely speak any English. Compounded with the fact that the 1st year JTE is fresh out of university and is even more scared of being up in front of those kids than what I am, it was bound to be an ordeal.

I was told by Kurosawa Sensei five minutes before the lesson that we would be teaching phonics (a-a-ant, b-b-ball for those of you playing at home). Not too scary a thought…until you find yourself trying to describe the sound for ‘x’ with ‘box’ as your sample word…in front of 34 terrified children and the watchful eyes of their parents at the back of the classroom! Kurosawa Sensei and I battled through and I made a mad dash for the teachers’ room as soon as class was over to hang my head in shame. From now on I am reading the textbooks at least five lessons in advance…just in case.

After the torment of PTA day I got to relish in social activities with my favourite English speaking ALT counterparts. First up was dinner and karaoke in Mito to celebrate Sam’s birthday…oh what fun! Considering that before I moved here I abhorred the thought of karaoke, my first Japanese experience of the sport (yes, after Saturday night, I consider it a sport) was unreal! Perhaps it was the awesomely bad film clips that accompany the tunes or the freedom of belting out tacky 80’s numbers at the top of your lungs in a small smokey room with 11 others? Whatever the reason, we left Mito in the wee hours of the morning with sore throats but feeling very satisfied indeed.

Last night was a little more sedate as past and present Hitachiomiya ALTs gathered to farewell one of it’s own, Lisa…who is off on another adventure in China. Another trip to Mito for Izakaya (all you can eat/drink) but thankfully an early night after the Karaoke antics on Saturday!

I wrapped up my weekend today by road tripping with JJ to a nearby shrine and scoping out the local gym. I use the term ‘gym’ loosely here as it is probably twice the size of my shoebox (apartment) and feels more like somebody’s home set up in their garage. To counteract the claustrophobia I felt afterwards I went for a run out of town amongst the rice paddies…